Category: education

中国文化教学感想 Reflections on Teaching Chinese Culture

黄爱平 by Huang Aiping, UICI Instructor (English translation found below). 有的学生想去中国旅游,有的想去中国工作,有的就是对一种新的语言、文化感兴趣,所以新学期在语言教学的同时给学生讲一点中国文化。有一次给学生讲中国城市。讲了长城有关的故事:孟姜女哭长城,烽火台的作用,烽火戏诸侯;讲了白蛇传的传说,古代女性的幽闺生活。给学生看了圆明园的断垣残壁、荒草斜阳,结果学生说真美,可以想象当初的美。我说这个地方没有修复,保留原样,学生竟然感同身受,表现出惋惜、沉痛。苏州园林、西湖美景、雕花镂窗、江南水乡,看着富有诗意的图片,不禁说了一句,中国也是一个诗的国度。学生马上说她也喜欢诗。竟然有喜欢诗的学生,让我非常惊讶和感动,突然之间觉得有了知音。不知不觉下课了,学生感叹一声:“oh, no”我说明天接着讲,学生笑了。这样上课真是让人开心。 一次音乐会后,有学生对我说,中国音乐也很好听,所以有时会在课前给学生播放中国传统民乐,比如《春江花月夜》、《高山流水》、《百鸟朝凤》等。我会简单介绍每首曲子的大致内容,《春江花月夜》所描述的春天月夜的美景和景物构成的诗意,诗人面对宏阔宇宙产生的年代无穷、人生有限的哲思;《高山流水》所传达的深厚情谊;《百鸟朝凤》的热闹和喜庆。学生听得津津有味;有次用“多/少+ V”这个语言形式造句,好几个学生说,希望老师多放点中国音乐。呵呵,音乐是世界语言,没错的。 有一天给初级班上口语课,主要学习“你是哪国人”这个句型。讲了生词及基本用法,复习疑问代词疑问句,然后课文朗读和自由对话,觉得学生很聪明,接受得很快,说得很好。因为要回答“你住在哪儿”,学生问,IDAHO的中文是什么,写了出来,学生又问,这个汉字是什么意思,我说是音译的,合起来就是一个名字,没有什么意思。学生接着问每个字的意思。所以我给他们讲了“爱”、“达”(举了“达人”语例,“***是汉语学习达人”,学生很开心)、“荷”,讲到荷花,荷叶、莲蓬、藕,顺便简笔画画了出来,介绍他们各部分的功用,说到“浑身是宝”这个词,并且讲了荷花“出淤泥而不染”的品质,中国人对“荷”的情感。学生意犹未尽。所以,文化教学、语言教学也要“不愤不启,不悱不发”。学生有强烈的学习意愿,传授什么都有好效果。 语言和文化是密不可分的,从广义来讲,语言本身就是文化的一种,如果对一国文化有深厚的理解,学语言也会有更多的乐趣。比如知道汉字造字法中的象形、会意之后,根据字形猜词义,会突然之间豁然开朗,觉得一个汉字就是一幅活生生的画。了解形声字的特点后,会根据形旁猜出很多字的意思,很有成就感。中国人的集体主义思想在汉语语序里有所表现,所以中国人写地址都是从大到小,而英语则完全相反。至于七大姑八大姨的繁复称谓,真的让学生非常头疼,但是由此可见中国人人际交往的亲缘关系和复杂庞大的关系网络,中国人现在打招呼都喜欢以亲热的哥哥、姐姐、阿姨等来称呼对方,以示亲近,拉近人与人之间的距离;而英语国家的称呼则显示出一种独立和距离感,正是文化不同的表现。通过对比,语言学习不再那么枯燥。 所以,对中国文化的恰当介绍,不仅可以丰富对中文的认识,加深对中文的理解,还可以提高学生的学习兴趣。而关于文化教学,汉语教师首先要对所教的内容有所区分:一是语言所涉及的背景文化知识;一是语言中所蕴含的中国人的思维特点;一是语篇所涉及的文化背景;一是专门的文化介绍或者讲座。细致区分之后,针对不同的语言点、不同学生的不同需求,进行因材施教,对师生都是一件愉快的事情。   Some students want to travel to China, and some want to work in China. Some are interested in a new language and culture. Therefore, in the new … Continue reading 中国文化教学感想 Reflections on Teaching Chinese Culture

汉语教学之初体验 First Experiences of Teaching Chinese

By Yaqian Gai, University of Idaho Confucius Institute instructor in Boise, ID. She teaches an Exploring Mandarin Culture and Language Class at Boise High School. English translation found below. 一生之中至少要有几次冲动的念头,为奋不顾身的爱情,为说走就走的旅行,为闺蜜的友情等等。二零一七年的八月二十三日我为了教中文来到了地球的另一边,为实现自己的梦想,开启了汉语教学之旅。 有的人每天都在抱怨生活的空虚与孤寂却也不愿意跳出舒适的生活圈子。外面的世界很精彩也很无奈,我勇敢的走了出来,为自己走出的这一步鼓掌。 我来到的城市是爱达荷州的首府博伊西,这个城市的秋天美的让人沉醉和窒息。而我所在的中学又是博伊西最好的高中,我是这个学校的第一个中文老师,在学校门口张贴的教职工照片当中有了第一个中国来的汉语老师,每当看到自己的照片,我的内心是无比的骄傲,为自己更为祖国而自豪。在博伊西高中的历史上,在这个百年名校中,第一次有了中国老师的身影。我所教授的是中国文化和汉语语言。美国语言学家萨丕尔指出语言不能脱离文化尔而存在,不能脱离社会继承下来的各种做法和信念。跨文化交际看起来容易做起来难,需要各方面的综合素质。作为一名对外汉语教师,应在平时就注意培养自身的跨文化交际能力,并以此为基础积极推动汉语教学在世界范围内的推广。 我的学生对中国的文化有着浓厚的兴趣,我带领他们了解了中国的剪纸,大熊猫,中秋节的习俗,还给他们分享了月饼;我们认识了北京,长城,故宫,还了解了北京大学清华大学的国际留学生与专业。总而言之带领我的学生们了解它们感兴趣的中国文化与中国习俗。比较突出的一节课是介绍的北京京剧和脸谱介绍。孩子们通过看视频了解京剧的角色扮演,颜色所代表的人物性格。之后学生根据自己喜好的颜色对脸谱涂色,一方面是熟悉颜色另一方面了解京剧脸谱。与此同时,我们开展了一系列的活动和游戏来加强孩子们对脸谱和颜色的认识。从而加深他们的印象和认识。孩子对这一系列的教学安排显得好奇而激动,他们热情的参与其中,圆满的完成了这节课的教学任务。 对于孩子们的表现我真的想给他们全部点赞,你们太棒了。 There must be at least a few impulsive thoughts in your … Continue reading 汉语教学之初体验 First Experiences of Teaching Chinese

My Road to Language Learning and Teaching

Jing Tian, Chinese Instructor, University of Idaho Confucius Institute

English was, and is still a compulsory course in schools in China. Many kids hate that. I did. But now, after learning English for 23 years and teaching both English and Chinese for 15 years, my suggestion for my son is still “try to learn at least one foreign language very well”. That makes him hate me for a while, like I hated the president of my middle school.

I started to like learning English since I started to read and watch movies in English in college. I even got to talk with teachers from English-speaking countries. Suddenly I felt I was overblown with how big the world is and how different the peoples are. I laughed a long time when my British teacher told us that she quit smoking because her boyfriend was not willing to kiss an ashtray. I felt sad for a long time because my American teacher refused to use the coat that I offered when she was wearing short sleeves and it turned freezing cold outside after the class. Later I started to understand more. And I found myself more joyful, more understanding and more peaceful. I wanted to spread this feeling. That’s why, in addition to the fact that teaching language is considered a decent job in China, I started teaching languages.

I thought I was good enough in terms of both language and culture, because I was well-received by both my Chinese and foreign students and I could work as an interpreter very efficiently, until I began to teach Chinese here in the US.

Jokes, games, songs, soap plays and famous persons’ pictures were used a lot in my classes. My students loved them. So I tried the same here in the US, but failed, more than once, because the same picture or the same joke triggers different emotions in my American students. I thought a specific combination of materials would be very funny and can stimulate learning, but those materials were unknown to the students, let alone make them laugh. I started to ask around and do more researches. It turned out that I actually don’t know so much about the American culture. I began to change the strategy. I eliminated some pictures and began to ask students to put more funny ideas in the class. And the classroom began to be more harmonious, and I began to know more. It feels much better to see students enjoy the class while learning things.

There are more examples of how the cultural differences shocked me but made me a better person, and how I changed myself and thus influenced others.

I believe it is the same with the world outside the classroom. If we open out hearts, the world around us would be better, and there would be more light into our hearts.

I’d completely stopped hating the president of my middle school, actually I began to appreciate what he did, because without him pushing the students to learn English, I could never be me. And I hope I could also make a difference by teaching languages, even though what I do is just a tiny part of what’s happening in this enormous and diversified world.